Two nation theory – Basis of Pakistan

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Commemorating the Lahore Resolution (later called as Pakistan Resolution) passed on 23rd March 1940. First constitution of Pakistan was passed on 23rd March 1956. The adoption of constitution made this country as first Islamic Republic. The day is celebrated across the country. Especially inter-services joint military parade is rehearsed and broadcasted live.

Reviewing history! One can say two nation theory was founding principle of Pakistan movement.  Muslims are worshipers of one Allah, following one Prophet (S.A.W) are considered as one nation living in different areas of the world. There were two nations Hindus and Muslims, living in majority in the subcontinent. Hindu and Muslim, constitute of “Distinct” ways of lifestyles and frequently antagonistic. Both nations cannot co-exist as one nation. The major differences are mainly religious, cultural, social economic, educational, political and lingual. Especially, cow is a sacred animal in Hindu ideology and cannot be slaughtered. On the other hand, it is mandatory for Muslim to sacrifice animals on Eid ul Azha. These controversies gave raise to anti-Muslim sentiments of Hindus and Muslim started thinking to have a separate state.

Muslims modest and reformer Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was termed as an architect of two-nation theory (1817-1898). This idea was further provided elucidation by Philosopher Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938). Father of Nation Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah translated this philosophy into political reality.

In different eras, political and social controversies have be raised especially after 1857 war. In 1867, Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindu Script (Sanskrit) instead of Persian. Muslims had religious sentiments regarding scripts of language. Huge collection of Muslim literature and poetry etc is in Persian, also.

Founded in 1885 Congress was Political Party which claimed representation of the public living in subcontinent regardless of religion. The said political party oppressed Muslim Ideas and supported Hindus at large. Partition of Bangal in 1905 and nullification of the said in 1911 reversing political and economic benefits been received by Muslims of Bengal. This depicted Congress hatred, hostility and prejudice for the Muslims. In elections, the areas in which Hindus or Congress came in power, they started oppressing Muslims religiously. They promoted Hinduism by narration of Band-e-Mataram in schools and Muslim students were compelled to bow in front of Gandhi’s Picture. Hindus used to play music in front of Mosques at the time of prayers.

Shuddhi Movement and later on Ghar Wapisi Tahreek started. These movements were aimed to convert Muslims into Hindus by force and reconverting Hindu who converted to Islam. In these circumstances, Muslims had no room else than getting down to brass tacks. Muslims gathered to attain freedom under the supervision of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Indian Subcontinent was supposed to be separated in different countries. Muslims should have a country where they are in majority and Hindus should have country in which they are in majority as said Allama Muhammad Iqbal 29th of December 1930 in Allahabad. In 1940, during 27th annual meeting of All India Muslim League in Lahore, Quaid e Azam declared that the Muslims were “a nation by any definition”. Lahore resolution was passed on 24th of March. Hindus started considering this resolution as Pakistan Resolution which has given a new vitality in Pakistan Movement. Keep in view the same ideology, Pakistan’s first constitution.

Writing more, Hindu Muslim riots are still continued in India. History of Hindus anti-Muslim policies, before and after partition, is same.  During Gujrat riots, 790 Muslims were killed leaving 2500 people injured in 2002. In April 2017, a Muslim man was killed and accused of transporting cows in Rajasthan. The incident agitated people, leaving many injured. Muslims were attacked and lynched by the neighbor, over suspicions cow.

Concluding more, Formation of Pakistan was not only for the sake of attaining land but for the security of Islamic believes. Muslims demanded this land to practice Islam freely. Along with Muslims, other minorities are also provided freedom of religion. Two nations theory would combine all the provinces in one chain. In the heat of the movement, Muslim should abide by this concrete Philosophy.


The views expressed in this article are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Lahore Times.

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